Published since 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction.
Editor-in-Chief, Robert West

January 2018

Mecamylamine treatment for alcohol dependence: a randomized controlled trial

Mecamylamine did not reduce alcohol consumption significantly in either treatment-seeking smokers or non-smokers with alcohol use disorder.

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Prediction of alcohol use disorder using personality disorder traits: a twin study

Conduct disorder and self-harming impulsivity are the foremost risk traits for alcohol use disorder among the 80 personality disorder criteria of DSM-IV.

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Major life events and risk of alcohol use disorders: a prospective cohort study

There is a strong association between serious economic problems in adult life and risk of alcohol use disorders.

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The stability of baseline-defined categories of alcohol consumption during the adult life-course: a 28-year prospective cohort study

Among UK civil servants, alcohol consumption within baseline drinking categories is generally stable during the life-course, except among heavier baseline drinkers, for whom intakes decline with increasing age.

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Childhood traumatic experiences and the association with marijuana and cocaine use in adolescence through adulthood

In the US, childhood trauma (individual types and total number experienced) is significantly associated with marijuana and cocaine use throughout life.

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Risk factors for severe respiratory depression from prescription opioid overdose

The severity of symptoms in people attending US emergency departments because of prescription opioid overdose varied widely with the type of opioid and was worse in substance misusers and older patients.

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To take or not to take: the association between perceived addiction risk, expected analgesic response and likelihood of trying novel pain relievers in self-identified chronic pain patients

In the US, self-identified chronic pain patients (CPP) at higher risk for opioid misuse are more likely to report willingness to try a novel analgesic despite increasing addiction risk than CPP with low risk of opioid misuse.

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Association between universal hepatitis B prison vaccination, vaccine uptake and hepatitis B infection among people who inject drugs

In Scotland, uptake of hepatitis B virus vaccination among people in the community who inject drugs has increased since the 1999 introduction of universal prison vaccination.

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The relationship between gambling expenditure, socio-demographics, health-related correlates and gambling behaviour--a cross-sectional population-based survey in Finland

In Finland, men spend more than women on gambling relative to net income. Those on lower incomes spend proportionately more of their income on gambling than those on higher incomes.

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Self-changing behaviour in smoking cessation linked to trait and cognitive impulsivity

Among smokers who do not seek treatment to help them stop, those who succeed in stopping appear to have a lower tendency to act on impulse and inhibit thoughts than those who continue to smoke.

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Adult interest in using a hypothetical modified risk tobacco product: findings from wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (2013-14)

Among US adults, interest in using a hypothetical modified risk tobacco product is low overall, and highest among current experimental and established smokers.

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German EstSmoke: Estimating adult smoking-related costs and consequences of smoking cessation for Germany

Life-time healthcare costs of German smokers appear to be substantially greater than those of German nonsmokers.

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Effects of comorbid substance use disorders on outcomes in a Housing First intervention for homeless people with mental illness

Housing First programmes in Canada for people who are experiencing homelessness and mental illness are equally effective in people with and without comorbid substance use disorder (SUD).

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Associations of coffee genetic risk scores with consumption of coffee, tea and other beverages in the UK Biobank

Coffee-related genetic risk scores could be used as instrumental variables indexing combined coffee and tea consumption in Mendelian randomization studies.

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Effects of high alcohol intake, alcohol-related symptoms and smoking on mortality

The number of symptoms related to high alcohol intake and smoking appears to account for the positive association between alcohol consumption and early death.

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Scaling-up HCV prevention and treatment interventions in rural United States-- model projections for tackling an increasing epidemic

To decrease hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence and prevalence in rural Indiana, USA, by 90% by 2025/30, both HCV treatment and prevention interventions must be increased.

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February 2018

Pharmacologically controlled drinking in the treatment of alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorders

Evidence is inconclusive for using nalmefene, naltrexone, acamprosate, baclofen or topiramate to control drinking in patients with alcohol dependence or alcohol use disorder.

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Using Bayes factors to evaluate evidence for no effect: examples from the SIPS project

Scientists who find non-significant results should calculate a Bayes factor to determine if there is evidence for a null hypothesis over an alternative hypothesis or that more data are needed.

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New cancer cases in France in 2015 attributable to different levels of alcohol consumption

Alcohol consumption in France appears to cause almost 8% of new cancer cases, with light and moderate drinking contributing appreciably to this burden.

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Associations between adolescent cannabis use and neuropsychological decline: a longitudinal co-twin control study

Adolescent cannabis use does not cause a decline in IQ, even when that use reaches dependence.

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Extended-release naltrexone for methamphetamine dependence among men who have sex with men: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

Extended-release naltrexone does not appear to reduce methamphetamine use or sexual risk behaviors among methamphetamine-dependent men who have sex with men.

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Does paying service providers by results improve recovery outcomes for drug misusers in treatment in England?

Drug addiction recovery services in England commissioned on a payment-by-results basis tend to have lower rates of treatment initiation and completion but higher rates of in-treatment abstinence and non-injecting than other services.

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Luck, come here! Automatic approach tendencies toward gambling cues in moderate- to high-risk gamblers

In the Netherlands, moderate- to high-risk gamblers appear to have a stronger tendency than non-problem gamblers to show an 'approach' tendency in a laboratory task to gambling-related pictures compared with neutral pictures. This gambling approach bias has been found to predict persistence in gambling behaviour over time.

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Ecological momentary analysis of the relations among stressful events, affective reactivity, and smoking among smokers with high versus low depressive symptoms during a quit attempt

Depressed smokers experience more exposure to stress, longer-lasting post-stress affective disturbance and greater risk of smoking relapse after stress than non-depressed smokers.

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Factors moderating the relative effectiveness of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy in clients using smoking cessation services

In English stop-smoking services, the advantage of varenicline over nicotine replacement therapy is lower in pharmacy and GP settings than in specialist clinics.

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Evaluating the mutual pathways among electronic cigarette use, conventional smoking and nicotine dependence

E-cigarette use among young adults is not significantly associated with later conventional smoking, either directly or through nicotine dependence.

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Associations of parental alcohol use disorders and parental separation with offspring initiation of alcohol, cigarette and cannabis use and sexual debut in high-risk families

Parental alcohol use disorders and parental separation predict increased risk of early alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use and sexual debut in offspring from high-risk families.

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Alcohol e-Help: study protocol for web-based self-help program to reduce alcohol use in adults w/drinking patterns considered harmful, hazardous or suggestive of dependence in mid-income countries

If the World Health Organization's web-based self-help program, Alcohol e-Health, is found to be effective, its potential public health impact in countries with underdeveloped alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatment systems is considerable.

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Moving alcohol prevention research forward--Part I: introducing a complex systems paradigm

A proposed complex systems paradigm for research into alcohol misuse can transcend limitations of traditional approaches and lead to high-leverage preventive interventions.

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Moving alcohol prevention research forward--Part II: new directions grounded in community-based system dynamics modeling

Community-based system dynamics modeling can provide powerful tools for policy and intervention decisions in alcohol misuse prevention.

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March 2018

Measuring treatment outcomes in gambling disorders: a systematic review

Measuring recovery from problem gambling needs to go beyond assessing gambling behaviour to encompass other aspects of people's wellbeing and functioning.

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The short-term impact of the alcohol act on alcohol-related deaths and hospital admissions in Scotland: a natural experiment

The October 2011 implementation of the Alcohol Act in Scotland was not clearly associated with a reduction in alcohol-related deaths or hospital admissions in the 3-year period after implementation.

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A developmental-based motivational intervention to reduce alcohol and marijuana use among non-treatment-seeking young adults: a randomized controlled trial

A brief, longitudinally delivered, developmentally based motivational intervention for young adults did not produce reductions in binge alcohol, marijuana use or dual use days relative to a control condition.

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Socio-economic differentials in cannabis use trends in Australia

The decline in cannabis use in Australia from 2001 to 2013 occurred largely among higher socio-economic status groups.

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Non-medical use of psychoactive prescription drugs is associated with fatal poisoning

Non-prescribed psychoactive drugs are commonly found at postmortem in drug poisoning deaths in Finland, with history of drug abuse being a major contributing factor.

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Trends and age, period and cohort effects for marijuana use prevalence in the 1984-2015 US National Alcohol Surveys

Marijuana use in the US has risen steeply since 2005, but not because of the liberalization of marijuana policies in some states.

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Pharmacokinetics of concentrated naloxone nasal spray for opioid overdose reversal: Phase I healthy volunteer study

A concentrated 2mg intranasal naloxone spray delivers naloxone as effectively, over the critical first 15 minutes, as the standard 0.4mg intramuscular (IM) naloxone injection.

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Moral disapproval and perceived addiction to internet pornography: A longitudinal examination

Perceived addiction to internet pornography seems to be more strongly related to moral concerns around pornography use than to the amount of daily use.

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Genome-wide association study of a nicotine metabolism biomarker in African American smokers: impact of chromosome 19 genetic influences

Three independent chromosome 19 signals account for ~20% of the variability in the nicotine metabolite ratio in African American smokers; knowledge of these may help to develop genomics-based personalization of tobacco dependence treatment.

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Trends in age of smoking initiation in the Netherlands: a shift towards older ages?

In the Netherlands, the peak age of smoking initiation (16 years) has not shifted despite new youth access laws.

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The effect of a behavioral activation treatment for substance use on post-treatment abstinence: a randomized controlled trial

A behavioral activation group treatment for substance use (LETS ACT) appears to increase the likelihood of abstinence and reduce adverse consequences from substance use up to 12 months post-treatment.

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Needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing HCV transmission among people who inject drugs: findings from a Cochrane Review and meta-analysis

Opioid substitution therapy reduces risk of hepatitis C acquisition and is strengthened in combination with needle and syringe programmes.

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April 2018

Predictors of smoking cessation during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

A wide range of socio-demographic, relationship, social, smoking-related, pregnancy-related, health and psychological factors have been found to predict smoking cessation in pregnancy.

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Alcohol-related harm in emergency departments: a prospective, multi-centre study

Almost one in 10 presentations to emergency departments in Australia and New Zealand are alcohol related.

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Efficacy of a web-based intervention with and without guidance for employees with risky drinking: results of a three-arm randomized controlled trial

A web-based alcohol intervention, administered with or without guidance, significantly reduced drinking and improved mental health and work-related outcomes in the German working population.

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Communities mobilizing for change on alcohol (CMCA): secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial showing effects of community organizing on alcohol acquisition by youth in the Cherokee nation

A community organizing intervention, Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol (CMCA), is effective in reducing availability of alcohol to underage youth in the US.

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Associations between methadone maintenance treatment and crime: a 17-year longitudinal cohort study of Canadian provincial offenders

Canadians with prior convictions and opioid dependence appear to commit fewer crimes when they are receiving methadone treatment compared with no methadone treatment.

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Impulsivity predicts poorer improvement in quality of life during early treatment for people with methamphetamine dependence

Among Australian methamphetamine-dependent people, elevated impulsivity (acting without sufficient deliberation) predicts lower improvement of social and psychological quality of life in the first 6-9 weeks of treatment.

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Relationship between high-risk patients receiving prescription opioids and high-volume opioid prescribers

Health care providers in the US who typically do not prescribe large volumes of opioids frequently prescribe opioids to patients at high risk of opioid misuse.

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Self-reported marijuana use over 25 years and abdominal adiposity: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

Neither cumulative nor current marijuana use is associated with liver attenuation or total abdominal, visceral, subcutaneous, or intermuscular fat in mid-life.

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The prevalence, incidence, and gender and age-specific incidence of problem gambling: results of the Swedish longitudinal gambling study (Swelogs)

The incidence of problem gambling relapse in Sweden is likely to be higher than estimated and in future is likely to include higher proportions of women and older adults.

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Cost-effectiveness of personal tailored risk information and taster sessions to increase the uptake of the NHS stop smoking services: the Start2quit randomized controlled trial

To increase attendance at NHS Stop Smoking Services, a tailored letter and taster session in the services is likely to be more cost-effective than a generic letter in the long term.

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Cigarette use is increasing among people with illicit substance use disorders in the United States, 2002-14: emerging disparities in vulnerable populations

While cigarette smoking has declined in the U.S. for the past several decades, it has increased since 2002 among people with substance use disorders.

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Patterns of substance use and mortality risk in a cohort of 'hard-to-reach' polysubstance users

In a Norwegian prospective cohort study, 'hard-to-reach' polysubstance users had a more than 10 times higher mortality risk than the general population.

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The genetic and environmental architecture of substance use development from early adolescence into young adulthood: a longitudinal twin study of comorbidity of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use

Among Norwegian adolescents, there appear to be strong genetic effects on both substance-specific and comorbid use of alcohol, illicit drugs and tobacco; individual differences in alcohol use can be explained partially by family background.

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Sexual identity differences in high-intensity binge drinking: findings from a US national sample

In the US, sexual minority women are more likely, and sexual minority men are equally likely, to drink at standard and high-intensity binge drinking levels as their heterosexual counterparts.

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Assessing causal relationships using genetic proxies for exposures: an introduction to Mendelian randomization

As genetic variants associated with addictive behaviours are identified, the potential for Mendelian randomization analyses will grow.

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May 2018

Diminishing benefit of smoking cessation medications during the first year: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

The proportion of smokers who use smoking cessation medications who benefit from doing so decreases during the course of the first year, but a net benefit still remains at 12 months.

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Motivation to reduce alcohol consumption and subsequent attempts at reduction and changes in consumption in increasing and higher-risk drinkers in England: a prospective population survey

Excessive drinkers in England with greater motivation to reduce consumption are more likely to report an attempt to reduce during the next 6 months, but on average this does not appear to translate to reduced consumption.

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Estimating the drink driving attributable fraction of road traffic deaths in Mexico

An estimated 19.5% of car occupant deaths in Mexico in 2010-13 may have been caused by alcohol.

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Trends in alcohol-related mortality in East and West Germany, 1980-2014: age, period and cohort variations

Between 1980 and 2014, alcohol-related mortality declined in both East and West Germany but started earlier in West Germany. This difference can partly be explained by different drinking patterns before and changes in the health care system after the reunification.

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Lifetime marijuana use and subclinical atherosclerosis: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

Marijuana use appears to be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, but only among those who have ever used tobacco.

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Risk of amphetamine use disorder and mortality among incident users of prescribed stimulant medications in the Veterans Administration

Among adult incident stimulant medication users in the VA health-care system (2001 to 2012), comorbid substance use disorders were common and were risk factors for development of an amphetamine use disorder (AUD).

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Direct-acting antiviral treatment of chronic HCV-infected patients on opioid substitution therapy: Still a concern in clinical practice?

In Germany, direct-acting antiviral treatment can achieve equally high sustained virological response rates among former or current drug users and patients with no history of drug use.

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Brief telephone interventions for problem gambling: a randomized controlled trial

In treatment of problem gambling in New Zealand, brief telephone interventions are associated with reductions in days spent gambling and dollars lost that are similar to more intensive interventions.

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E-cigarette price sensitivity among middle- and high-school students: evidence from monitoring the future

Higher disposable e-cigarette prices appear to be associated with reduced e-cigarette use among adolescents in the US.

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Validation of a contextualized assessment of smoking behaviour in students

Social context plays an important role in smoking-related decision-making and simulated social contexts have potential for the study of context-related decision-making in addiction.

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Improving quit rates of web-delivered interventions for smoking cessation: full-scale randomized trial of WebQuit.org versus Smokefree.gov

The smoking cessation websites WebQuit.org and Smokefree.gov have similar 30-day point prevalence abstinence rates at 12 months.

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The associations between psychotic experiences and substance use and substance use disorders: findings from the World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys

Associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and substance use/substance use disorders (SU/SUDs) are often bidirectional, but not all types of SU/SUDs are associated with PEs.

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Incidence and risk factors for mortality after release from prison in Australia: a prospective cohort study

People released from prison in Queensland, Australia are at increased risk of death, due particularly to drug-related causes. Those at greatest risk have poor physical and mental health and a history of risky substance use.

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Excess overdose mortality immediately following transfer of patients and their care as well as after cessation of opioid substitution therapy

In the UK, opioid-dependent people transferred to an alternative treatment provider for continuation of their OST experience high overdose mortality rates, especially within the first month.

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June 2018

Medical marijuana laws and adolescent marijuana use in the United States: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Synthesis of the current evidence does not support the hypothesis that US medical marijuana laws (MMLs) up to 2014 have led to increases in adolescent marijuana use prevalence.

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Immediate effects on adult drinkers of exposure to alcohol harm reduction advertisements with and without drinking guideline messages: experimental study

Television advertisements on the harms of drinking increase intentions to reduce drinking among both low- and high-risk drinkers.

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Adolescents' alcohol use and strength of policy relating to youth access, trading hours and driving under the influence: findings from Australia

Population-directed policies designed to reduce alcohol availability and promotion may reduce adolescents' alcohol use.

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Differences in mortality in a cohort of cocaine use disorder patients with concurrent alcohol or opiates disorder

Mortality risk and excess mortality are significantly greater among those with cocaine and opiates use disorder than among people with only cocaine use disorder or cocaine and alcohol use disorder.

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Increased non-fatal overdose risk associated with involuntary drug treatment in a longitudinal study with people who inject drugs

In Mexico, recent involuntary drug treatment is a risk factor for non-fatal drug overdose among people who inject drugs.

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Improving recruitment to pharmacological trials for illicit opioid use: findings from a qualitative focus group study

Recruitment of participants for clinical trials of pharmacological interventions for illicit opioid use could be improved if researchers became better at explaining clinical trials to potential participants. A checklist of issues to consider when designing trials is proposed.

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A reciprocal effects analysis of cannabis use and perceptions of risk

Longitudinal associations between cannabis use and perception of risks from cannabis use are reciprocal, with a stronger association between cannabis use and lower subsequent risk perception.

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Screening for problem gambling within mental health services: a comparison of the classification accuracy of brief instruments

The five-item Brief Problem Gambling Screen (BPGS) will be useful for mental health services wanting to screen for any level of gambling problem.

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The effects of prescribing varenicline on two-year health outcomes: an observational cohort study using electronic medical records

Varenicline prescription in UK primary care does not appear to increase likelihood of death, myocardial infarction or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease over the following 2 years compared with NRT, but may cause more weight gain and reduce primary care attendance possibly through increased smoking cessation rates.

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Education is the strongest socio-economic predictor of smoking in pregnancy

In Finland, socio-economic disparities in smoking in pregnancy are attributable primarily to differences in the mother's educational level (low versus high) and orientation (vocational versus general).

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Measuring spatial and temporal trends of nicotine and alcohol consumption in Australia using wastewater-based epidemiology

Wastewater-based epidemiology can be used to evaluate the geographic, temporal and weekly profiles of nicotine and alcohol consumption in different communities nationally.

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Diminished alternative reinforcement as a mechanism linking conduct problems and substance use in adolescence: a longitudinal examination

Diminished alternative reinforcement may be a modifiable mechanism linking early adolescent conduct problems and subsequent marijuana use.

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July 2018

SUPPLEMENT: Development and application of an economic model (EQUIPTMOD) to assess the impact of smoking cessation

The economic model, EQUIPTMOD, provides an invaluable tool for assessment of the return on investment of policies aimed at promoting smoking cessation.

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SUPPLEMENT: Estimates of effectiveness and reach for 'return on investment' modelling of smoking cessation interventions using data from England

Parameter estimates for the effectiveness and reach of interventions that increase population quit-smoking attempt and success rates can contribute to ROI estimates in support of national or regional policy decisions.

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SUPPLEMENT: Estimates of costs for modelling return on investment from smoking cessation interventions

Costs of treating smoking-attributable diseases and implementing smoking cessation interventions vary substantially across Hungary, Netherlands, Germany, Spain and England. Cost estimates can contribute to return on investment estimates in support of national or regional policy decisions.

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SUPPLEMENT: A utility of model input uncertainty analysis in transferring tobacco control-related economic evidence to countries with scarce resources: results from the EQUIPT study

Countries with limited research time and resources can adapt the EQUIPTMOD return-on-investment model to their own settings by collecting data on a small number of model inputs.

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SUPPLEMENT: Cost-effectiveness of increasing the reach of smoking cessation interventions in Germany: results from the EQUIPTMOD

Increasing the reach of group-based behavioural support, financial incentives and varenicline for smoking cessation by just 1% of current annual quit attempts would be a cost-effective way to improve the population's health outcomes.

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SUPPLEMENT: Cost-effectiveness of alternative smoking cessation scenarios in Spain: results from the EQUIPTMOD

According to the EQUIPTMOD modelling tool it would be cost-effective for Spain to expand the reach of existing GP brief interventions for smoking cessation, provide pro-active telephone support, and reimburse smoking cessation medication.

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SUPPLEMENT: Cost-effectiveness of possible future smoking cessation strategies in Hungary: results from the EQUIPTMOD

According to the EQUIPTMOD modelling tool, it would be cost-effective for Hungary to start a social marketing campaign and double the reach of current group-based behavioural support therapies and proactive telephone support for smoking cessation.

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SUPPLEMENT: Is it cost-effective to provide internet-based interventions to complement the current provision of smoking cessation services in the Netherlands? An analysis based on the EQUIPTMOD

Providing internet-based smoking cessation interventions to complement the current provision of smoking cessation services could be a cost-saving policy option in the Netherlands.

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SUPPLEMENT: Assessment of cost-effective changes to the current and potential provision of smoking cessation services: an analysis based on the EQUIPTMOD

Current provision of smoking cessation services in the Netherlands and England can benefit economically from the inclusion of cytisine and increasing the reach of brief physician advice, text-messaging support and group-based therapy.

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Extended-release injectable naltrexone for opioid use disorder: a systematic review

Many people who intend to start extended-release naltrexone do not do so, and most who do start discontinue treatment prematurely.

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The future of the international drug control system and national drug prohibitions

International drug treaties will need reform as more countries legalise cannabis.

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Unrecorded alcohol use: a global modelling study based on nominal group assessments and survey data

A new method for modelling country-level proportion of unrecorded alcohol use shows that lower-income countries have a higher proportion of unrecorded alcohol than higher-income countries.

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Impacts of licensed premises trading hour policies on alcohol-related harms

An agent-based simulation model suggests that restricting trading hours of licensed venues reduces rates of alcohol-related harm and extending trading hours of bottle shops increases rates of alcohol-related harm.

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Alcohol, pattern of drinking and all-cause mortality in Russia, Belarus and Hungary: a retrospective indirect cohort study based on mortality of relatives

Drinking frequency is associated positively with mortality among men and women in Russia, Belarus and Hungary. The mortality risk is higher among frequent drinkers who exhibit binge and hazardous drinking patterns.

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Cost-effectiveness of hydromorphone for severe opioid use disorder: findings from the SALOME randomized clinical trial

Injectable hydromorphone appears to provide similar outcomes to injectable diacetylmorphine and might provide greater benefit than methadone alone as well as being cost‐saving.

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The relationship between methamphetamine use and heterosexual behaviour: evidence from a prospective longitudinal study

Methamphetamine use is associated with an increase in being sexually active, having multiple and casual sex partners, and having condomless sex with casual partners, but is not associated with a change in condom use per se.

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Neonatal outcomes after fetal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine: national registry studies from the Czech Republic and Norway

Two national cohorts of women (Czech Republic and Norway) receiving opioid maintenance treatment during pregnancy showed small but not statistically significant differences in neonatal outcomes in favour of buprenorphine compared with methadone.

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Do predictors of smoking relapse change as a function of duration of abstinence? Findings from the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia

Among adult smokers in the US, Canada, UK and Australia, factors associated with smoking relapse differ between the early and later stages of quit attempts, suggesting relapse determinants change as a function of abstinence duration.

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Estimating the health-care costs of children born to pregnant smokers in England: cohort study using primary and secondary health-care data

In England, maternal smoking in pregnancy is associated with increased child health-care costs over the first 5 years of life, driven primarily by greater hospital in-patient care.

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'Are the Times A-changin'? Trends in adolescent substance use in Europe

From 1999 to 2015 European adolescents showed strong decreasing trends in cigarette use and moderate decreases in alcohol use. Cannabis use increased in southern Europe and the Balkans.

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Investigating causal associations between use of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine and cannabis: a two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization study

Two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses (which can test for causal effects in observational data) have found little evidence for causal relationships between nicotine, alcohol, caffeine and cannabis use.

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Corrected US opioid-involved drug poisoning deaths and mortality rates, 1999-2015

Death certificate reports understate the prevalence of and changes over time in opioid and heroin/synthetic opioid-involved drug mortality in the United States.

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'Addressed to you not as a smoker... but as a doctor': doctor-targeted cigarette advertisements in JAMA

Analysis of doctor-targeted tobacco ads in US medical journals from 1936 to 1953 suggest that tobacco companies targeted physicians as a potential sales force to assuage the public's fear of health risks and to recruit them as allies against negative publicity.

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August 2018

Baclofen: its effectiveness in reducing harmful drinking, craving, and negative mood. A meta-analysis

As a treatment for alcohol use disorders, baclofen yields higher rates of abstinence than placebo. However, it does not appear to be better in terms of increasing number of abstinent days or decreasing heavy drinking, craving, anxiety or depression.

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Treatment Response and Non-response in CBT and Network Support for Alcohol Disorders: Targeted Mechanisms and Common Factors

Long-term success in Packaged Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Network Support treatments for alcohol use disorder appears to be mediated by both general mechanisms (developing coping skills and self-efficacy) and treatment-targeted mechanisms (developing network strategies that emphasize social support and avoiding friends who drink).

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Drink Less Enjoy More: effects of a multi-component intervention on improving adherence to, and knowledge of, alcohol legislation in a UK nightlife setting

A community-based multi-component intervention concerning alcohol sales legislation in the UK was associated with reduced sales of alcohol to pseudo-intoxicated patrons in on-licensed premises in a UK nightlife setting and improved nightlife patron awareness of associated legislation.

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Attempts to reduce alcohol intake and treatment needs among people with probable alcohol dependence in England: a general population survey

Adults in England with probable alcohol dependence, measured through the AUDIT, demonstrate higher motivation to quit drinking and greater use of specialist treatment and self-driven support compared with other alcohol users, but most do not access treatment resources to support their attempts.

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An investigation of an open-access model for scaling up methadone maintenance treatment

An open-access model for rapid enrolment of people with opioid use disorder in methadone treatment appears to improve treatment access, capacity, and financial sustainability without evidence of deleterious effects on treatment outcomes.

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The impact of buprenorphine and methadone on mortality: a primary care cohort study in the United Kingdom

In UK general medical practice, opioid substitution treatment with buprenorphine is associated with lower mortality risk than methadone. In the population, buprenorphine is unlikely to give greater overall protection because of shorter treatment duration.

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Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) for opioid use disorder in clinical practice: Vivitrol's Cost and Treatment Outcomes Registry

Among opioid-dependent people receiving extended release naltrexone treatment, better mental health, higher education and lower recent drug use at baseline are associated with greater treatment duration, which itself is associated with lower relapse rates and improved outcomes.

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Associations between personality disorders and cannabis use and cannabis use disorder: a population‐based twin study

Individual differences in liability to cannabis use and cannabis use disorder appear to be linked to genetic risks correlated with antisocial and borderline personality disorder traits.

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A survey of tobacco dependence treatment guidelines content in 61 countries

Although most tobacco dependence treatment guidelines in 61 countries assessed in 2016 follow the WHO's FCTC Article 14 recommendations and do not differ significantly by income level, improvements are needed in keeping guidelines up-to-date, applying good writing practices and developing a dissemination strategy.

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Factors associated with the efficacy of smoking cessation treatments and predictors of smoking abstinence in EAGLES

A range of smoker characteristics (psychiatric history, cigarette dependence prior use of NRT) are associated with lower cessation rates but do not substantially influence efficacy of varenicline, bupropion or NRT.

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Trajectory classes of cannabis use and heavy drinking among rural African American adolescents: multi‐level predictors of class membership

Cannabis use and heavy drinking across adolescence and young adulthood in rural African-Americans show several distinct developmental courses.

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Four-year follow-up of an internet-based brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol use in young men

An internet-based brief intervention directed at unhealthy alcohol use among young men does not appear to reduce drinking over the long-term.

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Methamphetamine psychosis: insights from the past

Research findings from the 1930s to the 1970s suggest that paranoid psychosis should be considered a probable consequence of high-dose methamphetamine use.

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Can one simple questionnaire assess substance-related and behavioural addiction problems? Results of a proposed new screener for community epidemiology

The proposed Screener for Substance and Behavioural Addiction is a reliable and valid measure to assess the lay public's self-attributed indicators of addiction across 10 substances and behaviours.

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Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework and Multiple Streams policy theories to examine the role of evidence, research and other types of knowledge in drug policy

The relationship between evidence and drug policy action is complex and follows multiple causal pathways.

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September 2018

Alcohol industry involvement in policy making: A systematic review

Those who act on behalf of the alcohol industry are highly strategic, rhetorically sophisticated, and well organised in influencing national policy-making.

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Perception of Physical Attractiveness When Consuming and Not Consuming Alcohol: A Meta-analysis

Consuming alcohol may have a small effect of increasing a person's perception of the attractiveness of people of the opposite sex.

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Reducing the standard serving size of alcoholic beverages prompts reductions in alcohol consumption

Reducing the serving size of alcoholic beverages in the United Kingdom appears to lead to a reduction in alcohol consumption within single drinking occasions.

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Texting to Reduce Alcohol Misuse (TRAM): main findings from a randomized controlled trial of a text message intervention to reduce binge drinking among disadvantaged men

A text-messaging intervention to reduce binge drinking in disadvantaged men did not appear to reduce prevalence of binge drinking at 12-month follow‐up.

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Sexual-orientation differences in alcohol use trajectories and disorders in emerging adulthood: results from a longitudinal cohort study in the United States

In the US, throughout emerging adulthood several sexual-minority subgroups appear to have higher odds of belonging to heavier alcohol use trajectories than those who are completely heterosexual.

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Sickness absence diagnoses among abstainers, low-risk drinkers and at-risk drinkers: consideration of the U-shaped association between alcohol use and sickness absence in four cohort studies

People from Finland, France and the UK who reported not drinking any alcohol over several years were absent from work due to illness more often than low-risk drinkers.

Link to Abstract
Are changes in drinking related to changes in cannabis use among Swedish adolescents? A time-series analysis for the period 1989-2016

From 1989 to 2016 there appears to be a positive association (becoming weaker over time) between alcohol and cannabis consumption among Swedish adolescents who use cannabis.

Link to Abstract
Effects of a Prior Authorization Policy for Extended-release/Long-acting Opioids on Utilization and Outcomes in a State Medicaid Program

Oklahoma's 2008 prior authorization policy for extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioids may have reduced the number of opioid-naive patients initiating ER/LA opioid use by more than half while increasing short-acting opioid prescriptions by 7%.

Link to Abstract
Testing associations between cannabis use and subcortical volumes in two large population-based samples

In exploratory analyses based on young adult and middle-aged samples, normal variation in cannabis use is unrelated statistically to individual differences in brain morphology as measured by subcortical volume.

Link to Abstract
An RCT with the combination of varenicline and bupropion for smoking cessation: clinical implications for front line use

The addition of bupropion to varenicline treatment does not appear to increase smoking abstinence rates above that of varenicline alone.

Link to Abstract
A randomized controlled evaluation of the tobacco status project, a Facebook intervention for young adults

Compared with referral to a smoking cessation website, a USA-focused Facebook smoking cessation intervention did not improve abstinence over 1 year, but increased abstinence at the end of treatment and participants found it engaging.

Link to Abstract
Cannabidiol reverses attentional bias to cigarette cues in a human experimental model of tobacco withdrawal

A single 800-mg oral dose of cannabidiol reduced the salience and pleasantness of cigarette cues, compared with placebo, after overnight cigarette abstinence in dependent smokers. It did not influence tobacco craving or withdrawal.

Link to Abstract
Does early exposure to caffeine promote smoking and alcohol use behavior? A prospective analysis of middle school students

Caffeine may promote early use of other types of substances among middle school-aged adolescents.

Link to Abstract
Impact of current and scaled-up levels of hepatitis C prevention and treatment interventions for people who inject drugs in three UK settings

Current opioid substitution therapy and high-coverage needle and syringe provision is averting substantial hepatitis C transmission in the UK. Maintaining this coverage while getting current drug injectors into treatment can reduce incidence by 90% by 2030.

Link to Abstract
Keeping Secrets: Leslie E. Keeley, the Gold Cure and the Nineteenth-century Neuroscience of Addiction

Dr Leslie E. Keeley was a famous addiction cure doctor at the turn of the twentieth century, but mainstream medicine dismissed him as a quack. The article examines the role of contextual issues in the acceptance or rejection of theories of addiction, particularly the neuroscientific theories of the early twenty-first century.

Link to Abstract

October 2018

Drawing attention to a neglected injection-related harm: a systematic review of AA amyloidosis among people who inject drugs

Injecting-related skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a significant cause of morbidity and premature mortality among people who inject drugs. There is strong evidence of an association between SSTIs and AA amyloidosis.

Link to Abstract
National Cancer Societies and their public statements on alcohol consumption and cancer risk

In 2017, the American Cancer Society and Canadian Cancer Society websites failed to state that alcohol is a group 1 carcinogen and can cause cancer at low doses, and that there is no safe threshold for cancer risk.

Link to Abstract
Adverse adult consequences of different alcohol use patterns in adolescence: an integrative analysis of data to age 30 years from four Australasian cohorts

Frequency of adolescent drinking is a major predictor of substance use problems in adulthood.

Link to Abstract
Estimating mental health impacts of alcohol's harms from other drinkers: using propensity scoring methods with national cross-sectional data from the United States

Financial troubles due to someone else's drinking and assaults perpetrated by drinking intimates (spouses, other partners or family members) are associated with worse mental health

Link to Abstract
Effectiveness, safety and feasibility of extended-release naltrexone for opioid dependence: a 9-month follow-up to a 3-month randomized trial

Opioid-dependent people who switch from buprenorphine-naltrexone treatment after 3 months to extended-release naltrexone (XR-N) treatment for 9 months appear to have similar treatment completion rates, abstinence rates and adverse event profiles to people on XR-N from the start of treatment.

Link to Abstract
Evolution of clinical characteristics and outcomes of synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist exposure in the United States: analysis of National Poison Data System data from 2010 to 2015

In the US, hospitalization for toxicity from synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (Spice, Mamba) increased significantly between 2010 and 2015.

Link to Abstract
Prevalence of youth gambling and potential influence of substance use and other risk factors throughout 33 European countries: first results from the 2015 ESPAD study

Underage gambling in Europe appears to be associated positively with alcohol, tobacco and other substance use (but not cannabis); truancy; going out at night; and active participation in sports.

Link to Abstract
'Real-world' compensatory behaviour with low nicotine concentration e-liquid: subjective effects and nicotine, acrolein and formaldehyde exposure

People who use e-cigarettes with lower nicotine concentration e-liquids may exhibit compensatory behaviour (e.g. higher number and duration of puffs) and higher negative affect, urge to vape and formaldehyde exposure.

Link to Abstract
Cigarette brand diversity and price changes during the implementation of plain packaging in the United Kingdom

The implementation of plain packaging laws in the UK was associated with increased prices of manufactured cigarettes.

Link to Abstract
Fetal assessment in buprenorphine-maintained women using fetal magnetoencephalography: a pilot study

A novel biomagnetic technique may allow simultaneous quantification of cardiac and brain activities in buprenorphine-exposed and non-exposed fetuses in the third trimester.

Link to Abstract
Global statistics on alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use: 2017 status report

In 2015, alcohol and tobacco use between them cost the human population more than a quarter of a billion disability-adjusted life years, with illicit drugs costing further tens of millions.

Link to Abstract
Denise Kandel's classic work on the gateway sequence of drug acquisition

During the early 1970s Denise Kandel and her colleagues documented an 'invariant sequence' in initiation of drug use: starting with alcohol and tobacco, progressing to cannabis and then to other illicit, or 'harder' drugs. This observation became known as the 'gateway sequence' of drug use.

Link to Abstract

November 2018

AA attendance and abstinence for dually diagnosed patients: a meta-analytic review

Clinical referral of dual diagnosis (DD) patients to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is common. In many cases, DD patients who attend AA will report higher rates of alcohol abstinence than DD patients who do not attend AA.

Link to Abstract
Whole-of-community interventions to reduce population-level harms arising from alcohol and other drug use: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Whole-community interventions to reduce alcohol and other drug use and harms have seen small reductions in risky drinking, but have had little impact upon past month alcohol use, binge drinking or 12-month marijuana use and the studies have been subject to high risk of bias.

Link to Abstract
Is there gender convergence in risky drinking when taking birth cohorts into account? Evidence from an Australian national survey 2001-13

In Australia, gender convergence in risky drinking since 2001 has been evident only in people aged 50-69 years.

Link to Abstract
Multi-level analysis of alcohol-related injury, societal drinking pattern and alcohol control policy: emergency department data from 28 countries

The more restrictive the alcohol policy in a country, the lower the rate of alcohol-related injury, with country-level drinking pattern having little effect on this relationship.

Link to Abstract
The effect of parental drinking on alcohol use in young adults: the mediating role of parental monitoring and peer deviance

Young adults whose parents have moderate or high-risk alcohol consumption are more likely to consume alcohol than those with parents with lower alcohol consumption.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol outlet density and alcohol related hospital admissions in England: a national small-area level ecological study

In England, there appears to be an association between higher densities of alcohol outlets and higher hospital admission rates for conditions wholly attributable to alcohol consumption.

Link to Abstract
Medical cannabis legalization and opioid prescriptions: evidence on US Medicaid enrollees during 1993-2014

State-wide medical cannabis legalization appears to have been associated with reductions in prescriptions and dosages of Schedule III opioids to US Medicaid enrollees.

Link to Abstract
Genome-wide association meta‐analysis of age at first cannabis use

Age at cannabis initiation appears to be moderately heritable in western countries, and individual differences in onset can be explained by separate but correlated genetic liabilities.

Link to Abstract
Cigarette consumption and biomarkers of nicotine exposure during pregnancy and postpartum

Neither cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) nor cotinine accurately estimate nicotine exposure during pregnancy.

Link to Abstract
Carbonyl emissions from a novel heated tobacco product (IQOS): comparison with an e-cigarette and a tobacco cigarette

The IQOS heated tobacco product emits substantially lower levels of carbonyls than a commercial tobacco cigarette (Marlboro Red) but higher levels than a Nautilus Mini e-cigarette.

Link to Abstract
Independent predictors of mortality in adolescents ascertained for conduct disorder and substance use problems, their siblings and community controls

For US juveniles, the connection between conduct disorder and risk of early death appears to exist even when other contributing factors such as sex, ethnicity, familial factors, and substance use are removed.

Link to Abstract
Modelling the impact of a national scale‐up of interventions on hepatitis C virus transmission among people who inject drugs in Scotland

Most of the decline in hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence in Scotland between 2008 and 2015 appears to be attributable to intervention scale-up due to government strategies on HCV and drugs.

Link to Abstract

December 2018

Integrating smoking cessation care in alcohol and other drug treatment settings using an organizational change intervention: a systematic review

Organizational change interventions within health-care services to make smoking cessation care delivery part of usual treatment offer promise for increasing smoking cessation care and reducing smoking prevalence.

Link to Abstract
Probability discounting and gambling: a meta-analysis

There appears to be a positive association between problem gambling and shallow probability discounting (a cognitive bias that overvalues low probability gains and/or undervalues high probability losses).

Link to Abstract
A systematic review of the next-day effects of heavy alcohol consumption on cognitive performance

The research literature suggests that alcohol hangovers may involve impaired cognitive functions and performance of everyday tasks such as driving.

Link to Abstract
After how many drinks does someone experience acute consequences--determining thresholds for binge drinking based on two event-level studies

Binge drinking thresholds of 4+/5+ (women/men) drinks accurately predict the occurrence of consequences in general, but are too low to predict severe acute alcohol-related consequences.

Link to Abstract
Women's role in the rise in drinking in Australia 1950-80: an age-period-cohort analysis of data from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study

Specific birth cohorts influenced the post-WWII rise in alcohol consumption by Australian women born 1920-49. Much of the convergence with men's drinking after 1980 reflects large reductions in drinking among men.

Link to Abstract
Moderation of baclofen response by a GABAB receptor polymorphism: results from the BacALD randomized controlled trial

The GABBR1 rs29220 polymorphism may influence treatment response and possibly predict adverse effects to baclofen in treatment of alcohol dependence.

Link to Abstract
AUDIT-C and ICD codes as phenotypes for harmful alcohol use: association with ADH1B polymorphisms in two US populations

The age-adjusted mean AUDIT-C score is associated more strongly with genetic polymorphisms of known risk for alcohol use disorder than are longitudinal trajectories of AUDIT-C or AUD diagnostic codes.

Link to Abstract
How dependent is the alcohol industry on heavy drinking in England?

In England, the alcohol industry appears to be highly financially dependent upon heavy drinking, and might face significant financial losses were consumers to drink within guideline levels.

Link to Abstract
Underestimation of alcohol consumption in cohort studies and implications for alcohol's contribution to the global burden of disease

Underestimation of alcohol consumption in cohort studies is less than in typical population surveys. Uplifting survey estimates to 80% of total population consumption in global burden of disease studies appears appropriate.

Link to Abstract
High-intensity cannabis use is associated with retention in opioid agonist treatment: a longitudinal analysis

Among people who use illicit drugs initiating opioid agonist treatment in Vancouver, daily cannabis use was associated with approximately 21% greater odds of retention in treatment compared with less than daily consumption.

Link to Abstract
Gendered violence and overdose prevention sites: a rapid ethnographic study during an overdose epidemic in Vancouver, Canada

Overdose prevention sites in Vancouver, Canada remain 'masculine spaces' that can jeopardize access for women who use drugs.

Link to Abstract
EMS naloxone administration as non-fatal opioid overdose surveillance: 6-year outcomes in Marion County, Indiana

Among US emergency medical service patients administered naloxone for opioid overdose, those with repeat non-fatal opioid overdose events are at a much higher risk of mortality, particularly drug-related mortality, than those without repeat events.

Link to Abstract
Mediators of the effect of nicotine pre-treatment on quitting smoking

Nicotine pre-loading appears to facilitate smoking abstinence by reducing urges to smoke and smoke intake before quitting and urges to smoke after quitting.

Link to Abstract
Varenicline versus placebo for waterpipe smoking cessation: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

Varenicline was found not to be more effective than placebo in aiding cessation of tobacco use in long-term daily waterpipe smokers.

Link to Abstract

February 2017

Effectiveness of pharmacy-based needle/syringe exchange programme for people who inject drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Pharmacy-based needle/syringe exchange programmes appear to be effective for reducing risk behaviours among people who inject drugs, although their effect on HIV/HCV prevalence and economic outcomes is unclear.

Link to Abstract
The role of birth cohorts in long-term trends in liver cirrhosis mortality across eight European countries

The inclusion of the birth cohort dimension improves the understanding of alcohol-attributable mortality trends in Europe.

Link to Abstract
The effect of liquor licensing restrictions on assault: a quasi-experimental study in Sydney, Australia

Restrictions on the availability of alcohol appear to reduce the incidence of assault.

Link to Abstract
A momentary exposures analysis of proximity to alcohol outlets and risk for assault

People in areas with greater densities of bars, restaurants and beer stores appear to be at increased risk for non-gun assault at these outlets' times of heaviest patronage.

Link to Abstract
Trajectories of cannabis use disorder: risk factors, clinical characteristics and outcomes

Evidence suggests three distinguishable types of trajectory for development of cannabis use disorder starting in early teens: (1) persistent increasing risk; (2) maturing out, with increasing risk then decreasing risk; and (3) stable low risk.

Link to Abstract
What happened to the HIV epidemic among non-injecting drug users in New York City?

HIV prevalence has declined in New York City (NYC), USA and a high percentage of HIV-positive non-injecting drug users (NIDUs) are receiving antiretroviral treatment, suggesting an end to the HIV epidemic among NIDUs in NYC.

Link to Abstract
Evaluating the impact of a national naloxone programme on ambulance attendance at overdose incidents: a controlled time-series analysis

The supply of take-home naloxone kits through a national programme in Scotland was not associated clearly with a decrease in ambulance attendance at opioid-related overdose incidents in the 4-year period after it was implemented in April 2011.

Link to Abstract
Physician attitudes and experiences with Maryland's prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP)

In a survey of Maryland, USA physicians, most participants reported that prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) improved their opioid prescribing by decreasing prescription amounts and increasing their comfort with prescribing opioids.

Link to Abstract
Impact of laws restricting the sale of tobacco to minors on adolescent smoking and perceived obtainability of cigarettes: an intervention-control pre-post study of 19 European Union countries

Laws prohibiting the sales of tobacco to minors in Europe do not appear to be associated with a reduction in adolescent smoking rates, but they lower the perceived obtainability of cigarettes.

Link to Abstract
What a difference a day makes: differences in initial abstinence response during a smoking cessation attempt

More than one-third of people quitting smoking report extreme craving, negative affective or hunger responses on their quit day. These withdrawal symptom patterns are related to baseline characteristics, treatment and cessation success.

Link to Abstract
Do never smokers make up an increasing share of snus users as cigarette smoking declines? Changes in smoking status among male snus users in Norway 2003-15

Despite a decline in smoking prevalence, the majority of snus users in Norway are still former or current smokers.

Link to Abstract
Impact of smoking reduced nicotine content cigarettes on sensitivity to cigarette price: further results from a multi-site clinical trial

In current smokers, a reduction in nicotine content may reduce cigarette consumption, reduce the reinforcement value of cigarettes and increase cessation if reduced nicotine content cigarettes are the only cigarette available for purchase.

Link to Abstract
The neurobiology of addiction: the perspective from magnetic resonance imaging present and future

The magnetic resonance imaging literature provides a limited but convergent picture of the neurobiology of addiction as global changes to brain structure and functional disturbances to frontostriatal circuitry, accompanied by changes in anterior white matter.

Link to Abstract

March 2017

Cigarette smoking and depression comorbidity: systematic review and proposed theoretical model

A new application of incentive learning theory posits that depressed smokers experience greater increases in the expected value of smoking in the face three motivational states: low positive affect, high negative affect and cognitive impairment.

Link to Abstract
Tincture of opium for treating opioid dependence: a systematic review of safety and efficacy

Given the current evidence, it isn't possible to make conclusive recommendations about the safety and efficacy of opium tincture for treating opioid dependence.

Link to Abstract
Drinking with mixed-gender groups is associated with heavy weekend drinking among young adults

Young adults report consuming more drinks per hour when drinking with mixed-gender groups than with same-gender groups.

Link to Abstract
Acute alcohol effects on set-shifting and its moderation by baseline individual differences: a latent variable analysis

Practising tasks before drinking moderates the acute effects of alcohol on the ability to switch between tasks.

Link to Abstract
Patient-centered methadone treatment: a randomized clinical trial

Patient-centered methadone treatment (with optional counseling and with the counselor not serving as the treatment program disciplinarian) does not appear to be more effective than methadone treatment-as-usual.

Link to Abstract
Pharmaceutical sales of pseudoephedrine: the impact of electronic tracking systems on methamphetamine crime incidents

Electronic tracking systems can reduce people's capacity to produce methamphetamine domestically, but seem unlikely to affect methamphetamine possession, distribution and importation.

Link to Abstract
Assessment of rates of recanting and hair testing as a biological measure of drug use in a general population sample of young people

Hair analysis provides an unreliable marker of substance use in general population samples. People who report more frequent substance use before age 18 are less likely to later deny previous substance use at age 18 than people who report occasional use.

Link to Abstract
Drug-caused deaths in Australian medical practitioners and health-care professionals

Between 2003 and 2013, Australian health-care professionals averaged 37 deaths per year attributed to drug toxicity, with a mortality rate of nearly five deaths per 1000 employed HCPs.

Link to Abstract
Child maltreatment and cannabis use in young adulthood: a birth cohort study

Children in Australia documented as having been maltreated are more likely to use cannabis 1) before 17, 2) as an adult, and 3) daily and meet DSM-IV criteria for cannabis dependence.

Link to Abstract
Randomized controlled pilot trial of naloxone-on-release to prevent post-prison opioid overdose deaths

Large randomized trials of naloxone to prevent opioid deaths are feasible with prison populations. Giving prisoners take-home emergency naloxone prior to release may prevent heroin overdose deaths among ex-prisoners and the wider population.

Link to Abstract
Demographic trends among older cannabis users in the United States, 2006-13

The prevalence of cannabis use has increased significantly in recent years among US adults aged ≥ 50 years.

Link to Abstract
The effects of tobacco smoking on age of onset of psychosis and psychotic symptoms in a first-episode psychosis population

Smokers do not appear to have a significantly earlier age of psychosis onset than non-smokers after taking into account cannabis use and gender.

Link to Abstract
A school-based programme for tobacco and alcohol prevention in special education: effectiveness of the modified 'healthy school and drugs' intervention and moderation by school subtype

The Healthy School and Drugs programme adapted for secondary special education in the Netherlands lacked clear evidence for effects on all outcomes.

Link to Abstract

April 2017

Alcohol use disorder and divorce: evidence for a genetic correlation in a population-based Swedish sample

Divorce and alcohol use disorder are correlated strongly in the Swedish population, and the heritability of divorce is consistent with previous studies.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol use among fatally injured victims in Sao Paulo, Brazil: bridging the gap between research and health services in developing countries

Nearly one-third of fatal injuries in Sao Paulo between June 2014 and December 2015 were alcohol-related, with traffic accidents showing a greater association with alcohol use than other injuries.

Link to Abstract
Alcohol consumption during adolescence is associated with reduced grey matter volumes

Excessive alcohol use during adolescence appears to be associated with an abnormal development of the brain grey matter. Structural changes in the insula of alcohol users may reflect reduced sensitivity to alcohol's negative subjective effects.

Link to Abstract
Concurrent polysubstance use in a longitudinal study of US youth: associations with sexual orientation

Sexual minority youth in the US appear to be at disproportionate risk for concurrent past-year polysubstance use compared with their same-gender, completely heterosexual youth.

Link to Abstract
Fatal acute poisonings in Australian children (2003-13)

In Australia between 2003 and 2013 there were on average eight acute poisoning deaths in children each year, most commonly involving prescription opioids and adolescents, with a downward trend in mortality since 2003.

Link to Abstract
Purity, adulteration and price of drugs bought on-line versus off-line in the Netherlands

Dutch drug users increasingly purchase drugs on-line, especially new psychoactive substances. Purity and adulteration do not vary considerably between drugs purchased on-line and off-line for most substances, but on-line prices are mostly higher than off-line prices.

Link to Abstract
Childhood cognitive ability and smoking initiation, relapse and cessation throughout adulthood: evidence from two British cohort studies

Lower cognitive ability, measured in childhood before smoking is initiated, appears to predict a higher likelihood of taking up smoking and a lower likelihood of quitting in adulthood. Educational attainment appears to mediate this effect.

Link to Abstract
Neural mechanisms underlying visual attention to health warnings on branded and plain cigarette packs

Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging and eye-tracking data, health warnings appear to be more noticeable on 'plain' cigarette packs than branded packs.

Link to Abstract
How do text-messaging smoking cessation interventions confer benefit? A multiple mediation analysis of Text2Quit

Text-messaging programs for smoking cessation appear to work by promoting improvements in the psychosocial processes related to quitting rather than through the use of additional smoking cessation services.

Link to Abstract
Cannabis use during treatment for alcohol use disorders predicts alcohol treatment outcomes

People who use cannabis while undergoing treatment for an alcohol use disorder have fewer days of alcohol abstinence at the end of treatment compared with non-cannabis users; however, this relationship is present only among those who use cannabis once or twice per month.

Link to Abstract
Testing bidirectional associations among emotion regulation strategies and substance use: a daily diary study

There appear to be reciprocal relationships among emotion regulation strategies and substance use: greater daytime use of distraction, reappraisal, and problem solving predicts lower evening substance use, while higher evening substance use predicts higher next-day avoidance and reappraisal but lower next-day problem-solving.

Link to Abstract
Coverage of alcohol consumption by national surveys in South Africa

Evidence suggests that less than 20% of the total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa is reported in surveys.

Link to Abstract
The relationship between gestational age and the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome

Gestational age (pre-term, term or late term) at birth appears to be unrelated to the need for pharmacotherapy to treat neonatal abstinence syndrome in late pre-term and term infants. Treatment may tend to be given for longer in term than pre-term or late term infants.

Link to Abstract
The potential of neuroimaging for identifying predictors of adolescent alcohol use initiation and misuse

Neuroimaging data have the potential to be much better predictors of alcohol use than they currently are.

Link to Abstract

May 2017

A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between poor oral health and substance abuse

Dental patients with substance use disorders have more tooth decay and periodontal disease than the general population, but are less likely to receive dental care.

Link to Abstract
Identifying in-patient costs attributable to the clinical sequelae and comorbidities of alcoholic liver disease in a national hospital database

Costs of hospital care for patients with alcoholic liver disease are higher than those for patients with other alcohol-related diagnoses.

Link to Abstract
Adolescent drinking--a touch of social class?

Adolescent drinking in Norway appears to be related inversely to parents' social standing. The elevated risk of low socio-economic status vanishes when general parenting, alcohol-related parental permissiveness and parents' drinking are accounted for.

Link to Abstract
Positive and negative affectivity as risk factors for heavy drinking in the second half of life: a prospective cohort study

Norwegian adults aged 40-80 years with a high tendency to experience negative emotions are at greater risk of heavy drinking approximately 5 years later than those with a low tendency to experience negative emotions.

Link to Abstract
Understanding the alcohol harm paradox: an analysis of sex- and condition-specific hospital admissions by socio-economic group for alcohol-associated conditions in England

In England, socio-economic differences in harmful drinking patterns (specifically, conditions associated with dependence and intoxication) may contribute to the 'alcohol harm paradox', in which people of low socioeconomic status have higher levels of alcohol-related ill health than people of higher status despite drinking the same amounts of alcohol.

Link to Abstract
Receipt of addiction treatment as a consequence of a brief intervention for drug use in primary care: a randomized trial

Brief intervention delivered in primary care for screen-identified drug use does not appear to increase addiction treatment receipt significantly; a motivational interviewing approach appears to be counterproductive.

Link to Abstract
Effects of incentives for naltrexone adherence on opiate abstinence in heroin-dependent adults

Incentives for naltrexone adherence increase opiate abstinence in heroin-dependent adults, an effect that appears to be caused by the increased naltrexone adherence produced by the incentives.

Link to Abstract
The costs of crime during and after publicly funded treatment for opioid use disorders: a population-level study for the state of California

In publicly funded drug treatment facilities in California, USA, engagement in treatment for opioid use disorders is associated with lower costs of crime in the 6 months following initiation of treatment, and the economic benefits are far greater for individuals receiving time-unlimited treatment.

Link to Abstract
Adolescents at risk for drug abuse: a 3-year dual-process analysis

Drug-relevant memory associations play a key role in drug use behavior in at-risk youth.

Link to Abstract
Factors associated with short-term transitions of non-daily smokers: socio-demographic characteristics and other tobacco product use

The likelihood that a non-daily tobacco smoker in the US will remain a stable non-daily smoker or transition to either daily use or non-use is associated with socio-demographic factors and current use of cigars and smokeless tobacco.

Link to Abstract
Nationwide access to an internet-based contingency management intervention to promote smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial

A contingency management/financial incentive program delivered via the internet improved short-term smoking abstinence rates compared with an internet program without the incentives.

Link to Abstract
Neural responses to negative outcomes predict success in community-based substance use treatment

An elevated response to unexpected negative feedback in parts of the brain (specifically bilateral amygdala and anterior hippocampus) appears to predict relapse to substance use in people attending community-based treatment.

Link to Abstract
Trends in serious quit attempts in the United States, 2009-14

The proportion of US smokers making a serious quit attempt has increased since 2009, due to an upward trend since 2011. The 2014 serious quit attempt rate was 55.0%.

Link to Abstract
A SMART data analysis method for constructing adaptive treatment strategies for substance use disorders

Q-learning (a new data analysis method) can inform the development of more cost-effective, adaptive treatment strategies for treating substance use disorders.

Link to Abstract

June 2017

Model-based economic evaluations in smoking cessation and their transferability to new contexts: a systematic review

Existing economic evaluations of smoking cessation interventions lack information on one or more key study attributes necessary to be fully transferable to a new context.

Link to Abstract
The relationship between different dimensions of alcohol use and the burden of disease--an update

Research since 2010 confirms the importance of alcohol use as a risk factor for disease and injuries; for some health outcomes, more than one dimension of use needs to be considered.

Link to Abstract
Effects of increased alcohol availability during adolescence on the risk of all-cause and cause-specific disability pension: a natural experiment

In Sweden exposure to increased alcohol availability during adolescence appears to be associated with an increased risk of receiving a disability pension in later life.

Link to Abstract
Passengers at risk: a multi-level analysis of the decision to travel with a drunk driver

In Chile, men are at higher risk than women of being a passenger with an alcohol-impaired driver (PAID).

Link to Abstract
A preliminary randomized controlled trial of contingency management for alcohol use reduction using a transdermal alcohol sensor

Cash incentives linked to a transdermal alcohol sensor can reduce heavy alcohol consumption while the incentives are in operation.

Link to Abstract
Non-buprenorphine opioid utilization among patients using buprenorphine

The use of buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid use disorder has increased markedly in the United States, but a substantial proportion of patients fill prescriptions for non-buprenorphine opioids during and following such treatment.

Link to Abstract
Trajectories of heroin use: 10-11-year findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study

Heroin users in Australia show widely varying patterns of use over a 10-year period and it is proving difficult to predict which users will show which pattern.

Link to Abstract
Barriers to access to opioid medicines for patients with opioid dependence: a review of legislation and regulations in eleven central and eastern European countries

Patients in Eastern Europe with opioid dependence are likely to experience additional barriers to accessing opioids over and above those experienced by non-dependent patients.

Link to Abstract
Dropout in clinical trials of pharmacological treatment for methamphetamine dependence: the role of initial abstinence

Participants in randomized controlled trials of pharmacological treatments for methamphetamine use disorder who are able to achieve a brief period of early abstinence are retained longer in the trials and are less likely to drop out overall.

Link to Abstract
Trait and neurobiological underpinnings of negative emotion regulation in gambling disorder

Gambling disorder is associated with greater use of emotional suppression and middle frontal gyrus activation for regulating negative emotions, compared with healthy controls; both are linked with negative emotion-driven impulsivity in this disorder.

Link to Abstract
Attrition during a randomized controlled trial of reduced nicotine content cigarettes as a proxy for understanding acceptability of nicotine product standards

Participant drop-out in a 35-day trial of varying levels of reduced nicotine content cigarettes was greater for cigarettes with lower nicotine content and less in smokers reporting more favourable subjective ratings of the cigarettes.

Link to Abstract
Feasibility and safety of extended-release naltrexone treatment of opioid and alcohol use disorder in HIV clinics: a pilot/feasibility randomized trial

Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) is feasible and safe for treatment of opioid use disorder and alcohol use disorder in HIV clinics. Treatment initiation appears to be lower and retention greater for XR-NTX compared with treatment as usual.

Link to Abstract
Life-time history of insomnia and hypersomnia symptoms as correlates of alcohol, cocaine and heroin use and relapse among adults seeking substance use treatment in the United States from 1991 to 1994

There is evidence of an adverse association between substance use and sleep disturbance, which includes higher frequency of all substance use before substance misuse treatment and higher rates of cocaine use after a treatment episode.

Link to Abstract

July 2017

Modifiable parenting factors associated with adolescent alcohol misuse: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies

Risk of adolescent alcohol misuse is positively associated with parental provision of alcohol, favourable parental attitudes towards alcohol use and parental drinking and is negatively associated with parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, parental support and parental involvement.

Link to Abstract
The safety and efficacy of baclofen to reduce alcohol use in veterans with chronic hepatitis C: a randomized controlled trial

Baclofen administered at 30 mg/day does not appear to be superior to placebo in increasing abstinence or in reducing alcohol use, cravings for alcohol or anxiety among people with alcohol use disorder.

Link to Abstract
Trajectories of risky drinking around the time of statutory retirement: a longitudinal latent class analysis

In Finland, approximately 12% of people who reach retirement age experience a temporary increase in alcohol consumption to risky levels, while approximately 7% experience a slow decline in risky levels of alcohol consumption.

Link to Abstract
Binge drinking and family history of alcoholism are associated with an altered developmental trajectory of impulsive choice across adolescence

A greater degree of familial alcoholism is associated with a steeper decline in impulsive choice among adolescents who do not drink. More life-time drinks during adolescence is associated with increases in impulsive choice.

Link to Abstract
Substance use disorders and the risk of suicide mortality among men and women in the US Veterans Health Administration

Among people receiving Veterans Health Administration care in the US, current substance use disorders (SUDs) signal increased suicide risk, especially among women.

Link to Abstract
Volatility and change in chronic pain severity predict outcomes of treatment for prescription opioid addiction

Adults with chronic pain receiving out-patient treatment with buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP-NLX) for prescription opioid addiction have an elevated risk for opioid use when tapering off maintenance treatment.

Link to Abstract
Generalizability of findings from randomized controlled trials: application to the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

The findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for substance use disorder treatment do not appear to be generalizable to target populations when the RCT samples do not reflect the target populations and there is treatment effect heterogeneity across patient subgroups.

Link to Abstract
Working memory ability and early drug use progression as predictors of adolescent substance use disorders

Adolescents with weak working memory have less control over impulsive urges, placing them at risk for later substance use disorder.

Link to Abstract
The impact of TV mass media campaigns on calls to a National Quitline and the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy: a structural vector autoregression analysis

Tobacco control television mass media campaigns broadcast in Scotland between 2003 and 2012 were effective in triggering calls to Smokeline (a national telephone support service for quitting smoking) but did not significantly increase the use of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy by adult smokers.

Link to Abstract
Large multi-centre pilot randomized controlled trial testing a low-cost, tailored, self-help smoking cessation text message intervention for pregnant smokers (MiQuit)

A text-messaging programme may increase cessation rates in pregnant smokers when provided alongside routine NHS cessation care.

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Associations between substance use disorders and suicide or suicide attempts in people with mental illness: a Danish nation-wide, prospective, register-based study...

Substance use disorders are strongly associated with risk of suicide and suicide attempts in people with severe mental illness.

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Intravenous midazolam-droperidol combination, droperidol or olanzapine monotherapy for methamphetamine-related acute agitation: subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial

A midazolam-droperidol combination appears to provide more rapid sedation of patients with methamphetamine-related acute agitation than droperidol or olanzapine alone.

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Adjustment for survey non-representativeness using record-linkage: refined estimates of alcohol consumption by deprivation in Scotland

Using information from data linkage to adjust for non-response bias in health surveys can improve estimates of alternative harmful behaviours.

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Treatment and primary prevention in people who inject drugs for chronic hepatitis C infection: is elimination possible in a high-prevalence setting?

Based on theoretical model projections, chronic hepatitis C in Greece could be eliminated in the next 4-5 years by increasing treatment to more than 16% of people who inject drugs per year combined with moderate increases in harm reduction coverage.

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Modelling the impact of incarceration and prison-based hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment on HCV transmission among people who inject drugs in Scotland

Incarceration and the elevated transmission risk following prison release can contribute significantly to hepatitis C virus transmission among people who inject drugs.

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August 2017

Dimensional personality traits and alcohol treatment outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Among patients receiving treatment for an alcohol use disorder, those who relapse during follow-up have higher novelty-seeking behaviour, lower persistence, lower reward dependence and lower cooperativeness than those who do not relapse.

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Alcohol dependence and risk of somatic diseases and mortality: a cohort study in 19 002 men and women attending alcohol treatment

Alcohol-dependent men and women have significantly higher risks of a comprehensive spectrum of somatic (body-related) diseases relative to the general population.

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Correlates of alcohol consumption on heavy drinking occasions of young risky drinkers: event versus personal characteristics

The total number of drinks consumed in a risky single occasion drinking session appears to rise independently with the duration of the event, the number of drinking locations, and the number of different types of beverage consumed.

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A National Swedish Longitudinal Twin-Sibling Study of alcohol use disorders among males

There appear to be two major genetic factors contributing to the risk of alcohol use disorder among Swedish men: one beginning at ages 18-25 and another, of less impact, beginning at ages 26-33.

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Disparities in pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder in the context of universal health care: a Swedish register study

There appear to be socio-economic disparities in the receipt of pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder in Sweden.

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A randomized controlled trial of brief interventions to reduce drug use among adults in a low-income urban emergency department: the HealthiER You study

An emergency department-based motivational brief intervention, delivered by a therapist and guided by computer, appears to reduce drug use among adults seeking emergency department care.

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Does exposure to opioid substitution treatment in prison reduce the risk of death after release? A national prospective observational study in England

In an English national study, prison-based opioid substitution therapy was associated with a 75% reduction in all-cause mortality and an 85% reduction in fatal drug-related poisoning in the first month after prison release.

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Engagement in HIV care and its correlates among people who inject drugs in St Petersburg, Russian Federation and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia

The two steps in treatment cascade for HIV-positive PWID in St Petersburg, RF and Kohtla-Järve, Estonia requiring greatest improvement are retention in regular care and initiation of HAART.

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High risk of overdose death following release from prison: variations in mortality during a 15-year observation period

There is an elevated risk of death from drug overdose among individuals released from Norwegian prisons, peaking in the first week, and greatest for those having served 3-12 months.

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Cost-effectiveness of extended release naltrexone to prevent relapse among criminal justice-involved individuals with a history of opioid use disorder

While extended-release naltrexone appears to increase both quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and abstinence, it does not appear to be cost-effective due to the high price of injections.

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Extended treatment for cigarette smoking cessation: a randomized control trial

Extending cognitive-behavioral therapy from 26 to 48 weeks does not appear to improve long-term abstinence from smoking.

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A randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention for alcohol and drugs linked to the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in primary health care in Chile

It is not clear whether a brief intervention associated with the Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test is more effective than an informational pamphlet in reducing alcohol and illicit substance consumption in non-treatment-seeking, primary care users with moderate risk.

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Self-reported substance use in Iraq: findings from the Iraqi National Household Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use, 2014

Psychoactive drug use is generally low in Iraq, tobacco being highest at an estimated 23.2%. Iraqi women report significantly less substance use than Iraqi men. Discrepancy between self-report and 'knowing someone who uses a substance' suggests under-reporting.

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Epidemiology of HIV and hepatitis C infection among women who inject drugs in Northeast India: a respondent-driven sampling study

Women who inject drugs in Northeast India have a high HIV prevalence, which was more than double their hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence, an opposite pattern than is observed typically among men who inject drugs.

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Alcohol use from adolescence through early adulthood: an assessment of measurement invariance by age and gender

Studies that do not account for the effects of gender and age on the measurement of alcohol use may be statistically biased.

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September 2017

Internet interventions for adult illicit substance users: a meta-analysis

Internet interventions can yield small but significant reduction in illicit substance use.

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Life-time risk of mortality due to different levels of alcohol consumption in seven European countries: implications for low-risk drinking guidelines

If low-risk alcohol guidelines were based on an acceptable risk of one in 1000 premature deaths, maximums for Europe should be 8-10 g/day for women and 15-20 g/day for men, and some current guidelines would need downward revision.

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Coping mediates the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy for alcohol use disorder among out-patient clients in Project MATCH when dependence severity is high

Coping activities seem to be a mechanism of change in cognitive-behavioral therapy for alcohol use disorder among clients with high dependence severity, but not low dependence severity.

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Hospitalizations, costs and outcomes associated with heroin and prescription opioid overdoses in the United States 2001-12

Rates and costs of US hospital admissions related to heroin and prescription opioid overdose increased substantially from 2001 to 2012.

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Insular and cingulate attenuation during decision making is associated with future transition to stimulant use disorder

People who transition from stimulant use to stimulant use disorder appear to show specific types of neural activity that may constitute a high-risk addiction profile.

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Risk to heroin users of polydrug use of pregabalin or gabapentin

For heroin users, the combination of opioids with gabapentin or pregabalin potentially increases the risk of acute overdose death.

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The economic burden of neonatal abstinence syndrome in the United States

The number of US hospital admissions involving neonatal abstinence syndrome increased more than fourfold between 2003 and 2012. In 2012, neonatal abstinence syndrome cost nearly $316 million.

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Associations between childhood maltreatment and non-medical use of prescription drugs among Chinese adolescents

Maltreatment while a child is associated with an increased risk of non-medical use of prescription drugs among Chinese adolescents.

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Effect of 0.5 mg versus 1 mg varenicline for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial

There appears to be no difference in smoking cessation effectiveness between 1 mg and 0.5 mg varenicline, both administered twice daily for 8 weeks.

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Electronic cigarettes, quit attempts and smoking cessation: a 6-month follow-up

Among people who smoke, those also using an e-cigarette regularly are more likely to try to quit smoking and reduce their cigarette consumption during the next 6 months.

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The role of novelty seeking as a predictor of substance use disorder outcomes in early adulthood

The association between high novelty seeking and substance use disorders is not explained by common underlying individual factors and environmental exposures; thus, novelty seeking may play a causal role in the development of substance use disorders.

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Prescription contraception use and adherence by women with substance use disorders

Women with substance use disorders are less likely to use prescription contraceptives but not less likely to adhere to them once prescribed.

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Pharmacokinetics of concentrated naloxone nasal spray over first 30 minutes post-dosing: analysis of suitability for opioid overdose reversal

Concentrated naloxone nasal spray has a promising pharmacokinetic profile, with substantial bioavailability. Its early absorption time-course suggests it is suitable for emergency administration in the community.

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Introduction of a new instrument to measure motivation for gaming: the electronic gaming motives questionnaire

The four-dimensional Electronic Gaming Motives Questionnaire is a valid instrument for measuring motives for gaming.

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Significant reductions in alcohol use after hepatitis C treatment: results from the ANRS CO13-HEPAVIH cohort

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment appears to help HIV-HCV co-infected patients reduce alcohol use.

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October 2017

Substance use disorders in prisoners: an updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis in recently incarcerated men and women

From 1966 to 2015, approximately a quarter of newly incarcerated prisoners of both sexes across 10 countries had an alcohol use disorder, and the prevalence of a drug use disorder was at least as high in men, and higher in women.

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Adolescents' exposure to paid alcohol advertising on television and their alcohol use: exploring associations during a 13-year period

While Australian adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising on television reduced between 1999 and 2011, higher levels of past-month television alcohol advertising were associated with an increased likelihood of adolescents' drinking.

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Alcohol consumption and risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension in Denmark: a prospective cohort study

In Danish men aged 18-60, both alcohol abstinence and heavy consumption are associated with increased subsequent risk of unemployment and sickness absence compared with low consumption. In Danish women, abstainers have increased risk of unemployment, sickness absence and disability pension, while binge drinkers are more likely to become unemployed subsequently.

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The impact of normative perceptions on alcohol consumption in military veterans

Among US military personnel, attitudes to drinking appear to mediate the association between descriptive norms (what most people in a group think, feel, or do) and injunctions norms (what most people in a group approve of) about alcohol and subsequent level of alcohol consumption.

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Do more robust prescription drug monitoring programs reduce prescription opioid overdose?

US states that have more robust prescription drug monitoring programs (PMPs) have fewer prescription opioid overdose deaths than states with weaker PMPs.

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Impact of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) on opioid utilization among Medicare beneficiaries in 10 US States

Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are associated with reductions in opioid use among disabled and older adult Medicare beneficiaries in the United States compared with states that do not have PDMPs.

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Assessing the impact of a temporary class drug order on ethylphenidate-related infections among people who inject drugs in Lothian, Scotland: an interrupted time-series analysis

The UK government's 2015 temporary class drug order on ethylphenidate was effective in reducing infections among people who inject drugs during an outbreak situation in Lothian, Scotland.

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Varenicline versus nicotine patch with brief advice for smokers with substance use disorders with or without depression: effects on smoking, substance use and depressive symptoms

Varenicline appears to improve the chances of achieving at least 3 months of smoking abstinence in smokers with substance use disorders trying to stop, compared with transdermal nicotine patches, the effect being independent of history of depressive disorder.

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Perceived harms and benefits of tobacco, marijuana, and electronic vaporizers among young adults in Colorado: implications for health education and research

Young adults in Colorado, USA, perceive the harms and benefits of tobacco and marijuana in terms of potency, chemical additives, addiction, combustible versus non-combustible products, and source of information.

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Association between smoking and alcohol-related behaviours: a time-series analysis of population trends in England

Between 2014 and 2016, monthly changes in prevalence of smoking in England were associated positively with prevalence of high-risk drinking.

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Does coffee consumption impact on heaviness of smoking?

Amount of coffee consumption is unlikely to have a major causal impact upon amount of cigarette smoking.

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An analysis of purchase price of legal and illicit cigarettes in urban retail environments in 14 low- and middle-income countries

The median purchase price of illicit cigarettes is higher than that of legal cigarette packs in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia appear to have few or no illicit cigarettes for purchase from formal, urban retailers.

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PPAR-gamma agonist pioglitazone modifies craving intensity and brain white matter integrity in patients with primary cocaine use disorder: a double-blind randomized controlled pilot trial

Compared with placebo, patients receiving pioglitazone show a higher likelihood of reduced cocaine craving and improved brain white matter integrity as a function of time in treatment.

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November 2017

The effectiveness of an intervention to reduce alcohol-related violence in premises licensed for the sale and on-site consumption of alcohol: a randomized controlled trial

In Wales, UK, an Environmental Health Practitioner-led intervention in premises licensed for the sale and on-site consumption of alcohol resulted in an increase in police recorded violence.

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Familial association of abstinent remission from alcohol use disorder in first-degree relatives of alcohol-dependent treatment-seeking probands

The likelihood of abstinent remission among people with alcohol use disorder appears to be more than three times greater for individuals who are related to an abstinent proband versus those related to a proband with persistent alcohol use disorder.

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The contribution of alcohol use and other behavioural, material and social factors to socio-economic differences in alcohol-related disorders in a Swedish cohort

Socio-economic differences in alcohol use only explain a quarter of the socio-economic position differences in alcohol-related disorders in Stockholm, Sweden.

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Are alcohol-related disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth decreasing?

Lesbian/gay and bisexual youth in Canada show elevated rates of alcohol use compared with heterosexual youth.

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The impacts of minimum alcohol pricing on alcohol attributable morbidity in regions of British Colombia, Canada with low, medium and high mean family income

In Canada, setting a minimum price for alcohol has been associated with a reduction in alcohol attributable hospitalizations.

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Examination of cumulative effects of early adolescent depression on cannabis and alcohol use disorder in late adolescence in a community-based cohort

Youth with more chronic or severe forms of depression during early adolescence may be at elevated risk for developing cannabis use disorder compared with youth with fewer depressive symptoms.

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Nucleus accumbens functional connectivity at age 20 is associated with trajectory of adolescent cannabis use and predicts psychosocial functioning in young adulthood

Patterns of cannabis use frequency in US male adolescents could affect mood symptoms and educational attainment in early adulthood via altered function in neural reward circuitry.

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Ready, willing, and able: the role of cannabis use opportunities in understanding adolescent cannabis use

Approaches to measuring adolescent cannabis use that account for realistic use opportunities are critical to understanding underage cannabis use. Delineation of realistic opportunities from behaviours conditioned upon such opportunities is generalizable to a range of public health issues.

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Loose regulation of medical marijuana programs associated with higher rates of adult marijuana use but not cannabis use disorder

Non-medical marijuana laws enacted in US states are associated with increased marijuana use, but only among adults aged 26+ years.

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Changes in undergraduates' marijuana, heavy alcohol and cigarette use following legalization of recreational marijuana use in Oregon

Rates of Oregon college students' marijuana use increased (relative to that of students in other states) following recreational marijuana legislation in 2015, but only for those who reported recent heavy use of alcohol.

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Cost-effectiveness of emergency department-initiated treatment for opioid dependence

Buprenorphine appears to be the most cost-effective treatment for people with untreated opioid addiction who visit US emergency departments.

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Deriving low-risk gambling limits from longitudinal data collected in two independent Canadian studies

Longitudinal data in Canada suggest low-risk gambling thresholds of eight times per month, $75CAN total per month and 1.7% of income spent on gambling.

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Progress in implementation of WHO FCTC Article 14 and its guidelines: a survey of tobacco dependence treatment provision in 142 countries

Fewer than half the Parties to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have implemented the recommendations of Article 14 and its guidelines to promote tobacco cessation and implement effective measures to help tobacco users quit.

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Very brief physician advice and supplemental proactive telephone calls to promote smoking reduction and cessation in Chinese male smokers with no intention to quit: a randomized trial

A very brief, proactive, low-cost smoking-reduction intervention without medications for Chinese male smokers with no intention to quit appears to increase smoking abstinence.

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Association between elementary school personality and high school smoking and drinking

Three personality traits (urgency, sensation-seeking and low conscientiousness), when measured in 11-year-old children, predict those children's drinking and smoking behavior individually at age 15.

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A new methodological approach to adjust alcohol exposure distributions to improve the estimation of alcohol-attributable fractions

A refinement of Rehm et al.'s approach to adjusting for underreporting in the estimation of alcohol-attributable fractions provides more flexibility.

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December 2017

The experience of initiating injection drug use and its social context: a qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis

Injection drug use initiation is a dynamic process shaped by social and structural factors. Interventions should seek to modify the contexts for initiation.

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Who achieves low risk drinking during alcohol treatment? An analysis of patients in three alcohol clinical trials

Low-risk drinking is achievable for some individuals as they undergo treatment for alcohol dependence.

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Heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk of active tuberculosis in Taiwanese adults: a nation-wide population-based cohort study

In Taiwan, heavy and regular alcohol consumption are associated with higher risks of active tuberculosis.

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Self-reported cognitive scales in a US National Survey: reliability, validity, and preliminary evidence for associations with alcohol and drug use

Impairments in attention and executive functioning are positively associated with substance use in the US general population.

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Structural neuroimaging correlates of alcohol and cannabis use in adolescents and adults

Alcohol use severity is associated with widespread lower gray matter volume and white matter integrity in adults, and with lower gray matter volume in adolescents.

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A pilot randomized clinical trial testing integrated 12-Step facilitation (iTSF) treatment for adolescent substance use disorder

A novel integrated 12-Step facilitation treatment for adolescent substance use disorder showed benefits in terms of 12-Step attendance and consequences and may provide an integrated evidence-based option compatible with existing practices.

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Variation in cannabis potency and prices in a newly legal market: evidence from 30 million cannabis sales in Washington state

In the state of Washington, USA, the legal cannabis market is currently dominated by high-THC cannabis flowers, with growing expenditures on extracts. For cannabis flowers, both THC and cannabidiol concentration are associated with higher per-gram prices.

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Associations between anhedonia and marijuana use escalation across mid-adolescence

In mid-adolescence, anhedonia (inability to experience pleasure) is associated with subsequent marijuana use escalation, but marijuana use escalation does not appear to be associated with subsequent anhedonia.

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Rates, characteristics and circumstances of methamphetamine-related death in Australia: a national 7-year study

Methamphetamine death rates doubled in Australia from 2009 to 2015. While toxicity was the most frequent cause, natural disease, suicide and accident comprised more than half of deaths.

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Mapping medical marijuana: state laws regulating patients, product safety, supply chains and dispensaries, 2017

The US federal ban on marijuana has manifested as a patchwork of regulatory strategies not uniformly consistent with the approach usually taken by the Federal government and of unknown effectiveness.

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A free ride? An analysis of the association of casino bus tours and problem gambling among older adults

Older adults who use bus tours to access Canadian gambling venues have an increased likelihood of problem gambling.

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Accuracy of self-reported smoking abstinence in clinical trials of hospital-initiated smoking interventions

In the United States, high rates (40%) of recently hospitalized smokers enrolled in smoking cessation trials fail biochemical verification of their self-reported abstinence.

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Effectiveness of intensive practice nurse counselling versus brief general practitioner advice, both combined with varenicline, for smoking cessation: a randomized pragmatic trial in primary care

In people seeking help to stop smoking, one-off brief advice from a GP appears to be as effective as several sessions of behavioural support from a practice nurse when smoking cessation medication is provided.

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The association between personal income and smoking among adolescents: a study in six European cities

In the Netherlands, Portugal, Germany, Italy, Belgium and Finland, adolescents' personal income is related positively to smoking behaviours independent of family socio-economic status.

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Setting research priorities in tobacco control: a stakeholder engagement project

Stakeholders in tobacco control and smoking cessation research identified electronic cigarettes, addressing inequalities, and mental health and other substance abuse as key areas for research.

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